De Getallen (Getalsymboliek)

De getallen (Getalsymboliek)
In het stukje over astrologie zagen we dat de 12 maanden van het jaar ondergeschikt waren aan de 7 planeten. Omdat de uitkomst van 12 min 7 gelijk is aan 5, zagen we ook dat 5 van de 7 planeten tweemaal gebruikt werden, zodat elke maand ondergeschikt was aan een planeet. Wat ook wel gebeurde was dat dit bouwsel met nog weer een extra laag werd voorzien, namelijk 12 goden van de Olympus die over de planeten regeren die weer over de maanden regeren. Mercurius, de planeet, regeert niet alleen over de maanden mei en augustus, maar als lid van de Olympische goden ook over de maand juni (met Luna als planeet).

Soms vallen getallen gewoon op. Zou het toeval zijn dat men vroeger, om een schema in 3 lagen van relaties tussen maanden (12), planeten (7) en Olympische goden (12) te maken, 5 planeten 2 maal gebruikte? 3, 5 en 7 zijn priemgetallen en 12 is de som van die twee priemgetallen (5 en 7).

Getallen en priemgetallen. Voor sommigen de ultieme bron van wijsheid verstopt in boeken en geschriften; een bron van oneindige schoonheid voor wie de verbanden wil zien. Voor anderen een bron van irritatie: net niet kloppende redeneringen die kloppend worden gemaakt met vergezochte berekeningen. Hoe men ook over cijfers en hun betekenis denken mag (kader van Joodse mystiek (kabbala), numerologie, bijbelstudie, etc.), in de bijbelse context vallen sommige getallen op. Heel ver gaat E.W. Bullinger in zijn studie Number in Scripture; Its Supernatural Design and Spiritual Significance" (1921)

Wij gaan hier niet zover. We behandelen hier drie (3) getallen: 3, 5 en 7. We gebruikten daarvoor teksten van Timmers' "Symboliek en iconographie der Christelijke kunst" (1947). Verder hebben drie (3) lijsten gemaakt met behulp van het Iconclass systeem (We gebruikten de trefwoorden "three", "five" en "seven"). Wanneer een Iconclass notatie treffers oplevert in de database, is een hyperlink gemaakt.

En hoewel we hier alleen de treffers in bijbelse context laten zien, dat wil zeggen alleen treffers uit de delen 1 en 7 van Iconclass, is de hoeveelheid treffers opmerkelijk. Bij de beschouwer dringen zich hier vergelijkbare associaties op als die zich voordeden bij het verschijnsel typologie: ontzag en verwondering om zoveel planmatigheid; de onontkombaarheid van de (getalsmatige) samenhang tussen alles.

3, drie, tri-
Drie is het heilige getal, symbool van de goddelijke drieëenheid. We zien het getal overal terug: de drie Maria's uit de bijbelse geschiedenis, de drie wijzen, de drie theologische deugden (geloof, hoop en liefde) en de drie tijdperken (ante legem (voor de wet), sub lege (onder de wet) en sub gratia (na de komst van Christus)).

  1. The Holy Trinity (11B)
  2. Trinity represented by tripartite symbols (see 11B1)
  3. Trinity represented as a person with three heads (11B12)
  4. 'Tricephalus', three fused heads or faces only :: Trinity (11B121)
  5. Trinity as three persons (11B31)
  6. the three crosses are dug up near the temple of Venus :: the legend of the True Cross (11D41162)
  7. group of three canonical Archangels: Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael (11G182)
  8. St. Ambrose castigating Arius and his followers with a three-knotted scourge (11H(AMBROSE)41
  9. the Virgin Mary, interceding for mankind, presents St. Dominic and usually also St. Francis of Assisi to Christ; Christ brandishes three spears or arrows to destroy the sins of Pride, Avarice and Lust (11H(DOMINIC)343
  10. three nails :: attributes of St. Helena (11HH(HELENA)
  11. St. Louis IX carrying relics (crown of thorns and three nails) towards the Sainte-Chapelle in Paris (11H(LOUIS IX)43
  12. St. Macarius pointing out three graves to three horsemen (11H(MACARIUS)33)
  13. three loaves :: attributes of St. Mary of Egypt (11HH(MARY OF EGYPT)
  14. the charity of Nicholas: (dressed as a citizen) he throws three golden balls (or purses) through the window of the house of a nobleman; he thus prevents the three nobleman's daughters, who are weeping or sleeping, from prostitution (11H(NICHOLAS)41
  15. St. Nicholas restores to life three children who had been murdered, dismembered, and salted down in a pickling tub by an inn-keeper (11H(NICHOLAS)51
  16. St. Nicholas frees three soldiers from prison by appearing to emperor Constantine in a dream; Constantine sends the three released men with gifts to St. Nicholas (11H(NICHOLAS)53
  17. St. Nicholas prevents the execution by the sword of three innocent soldiers (11H(NICHOLAS)54
  18. the three patriarchs together: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob (11I6111)
  19. Three Hebrews (11I62(THREE HEBREWS)
  20. the Three Theological Virtues (11M3)
  21. the visit of the three angels (three men) :: story of Abraham (71C122)
  22. the butler's dream: the grape-vine with three branches whose fruit the butler squeezes into the king's cup (71D1441)
  23. the baker's dream: birds pecking at three baskets of bread (71D1442)
  24. the prophet Gad comes to David and gives him the choice between three punishments (71H545)
  25. Joab stabs Absalom with three spears (71H8492)
  26. the three kings, from Israel, Judah and Edom, consult Elisha (71K2914)
  27. Joash defeats Benhadad III three times (71K3311)
  28. Hosea, Gomer and the three children (71O22)
  29. the story of the three Hebrews in the fiery furnace (71P13)
  30. Daniel is appointed as one of the three presidents of the kingdom (71P31)
  31. Job's children, seven sons and three daughters (71W111)
  32. the seizure of Job's camels by three bands of Chaldeans (71W3131)
  33. "a generation goes and a generation comes ..." :: the three ages of man (71Y2(Eccles. 1:4))
  34. three daughters of Anna, all named Mary (73A2382)
  35. the story of the three Wise Men (kings or Magi (73B5)
  36. "let us make three booths (tabernacles) ..." :: the Transfiguration (73C7133)
  37. agony of Christ; three (or eleven) apostles sleeping (73D31211)
  38. Peter receives the three servants of Cornelius (73F2134)
  39. Paul's ecstatic vision: he is borne aloft by (three) angels (73F22385)
  40. the beheading of Paul; maybe three fountains spring from his head (73F2243)
  41. Thomas consecrates the three Wise Men as bishops (73F293)
  42. the three angels proclaiming the day of judgement (73G45)
  43. John sees three unclean spirits like frogs coming out of the mouth of a dragon, a beast and a false prophet (73G481)

5
Het getal vijf (5) vinden we terug bij de boeken van Mozes, de vijf stenen die David gebruikte bij zijn gevecht tegen Goliath, de vijf zintuigen van de mens, de vijf broden bij de wonderbaarlijke spijziging en de wonden van Christus (zie ook afb. rechts).

  1. Christ-child displaying the five wounds (11D234)
  2. the body of St. John Nepomuk floats in the water with a mysterious light of five stars above it (11H(JOHN NEPOMUK)681
  3. martyrs of Maroc (11H(MARTYRS OF MAROC))
  4. Judas Maccabeus and his five brothers (11I62(JUDAS MACCABEUS)71
  5. the (five) senses (31A3)
  6. the five Platonic solids (one inside the other) (49D41)
  7. the king of Elam and three allied kings make war against the five rebellious kings of the Pentapolis (71C1161)
  8. the five Amorite kings (viz. from Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish and Eglon) join forces to attack Gibeon (71E5291)
  9. the five wounded limbs of Christ: heart (side-wound), hands, and feet (73D83)

7
Met het getal zeven (7) zijn we echt aangeland in de eredivisie van betekenisvolle getallen. Zeven (7) is samengesteld uit drie (3) en vier (4), oftewel uit God, de drieëenheid, en de wereld, de vier elementen. Het is het heilige getal bij uitstek en duidt op volheid en voleinding: God rustte op de zevende dag na de schepping. Het getal zeven (7) komen we op heel veel plaatsen in de bijbel tegen. Het getal speelt een belangrijke rol in de Openbaring van Johannes (Apokalyps):

  1. the Seven Bleedings of Christ (11D421)
  2. the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost (11E5)
  3. the (Seven) Sorrows of Mary (11F2411)
  4. Mary pierced by seven swords (11F2412)
  5. the (Seven) Joys of Mary (11F2421)
  6. the seven Archangels (11G18)
  7. the vision of the seven stars: they announce to St. Hugh of Grenoble the arrival of St. Bruno the Carthusian and his six companions (11H(HUGH)34)
  8. Seven Maccabees (11H(MACCABEES, SEVEN))
  9. the Seven Sleepers (children) of Ephesus (11H(SEVEN SLEEPERS))
  10. attributes of St. Felicity (heads of seven sons on plate or sword's blade) (11HH(FELICITY))
  11. St. Felicity and her seven sons are brought before the judge and condemned to death (11HH(FELICITY)61)
  12. the seven sons of St. Felicity are beheaded; Felicity may be shown comforting them, or she is beheaded also (11HH(FELICITY)68)
  13. the Seven Refuges (11L5413)
  14. "Sapientia" and the seven virtues, i.e. the Three Theological and the Four Cardinal Virtues (11M)
  15. the temple of "Sapientia", with seven columns (11M11)
  16. Vice and the Seven Deadly Sins (11N)
  17. dragon with seven heads :: the Seven deadly Sins symbolized (11N21)
  18. the seven Sacraments of the Roman Catholic Church (11Q732)
  19. the seven gifts of the body ("les dons du corps") (11S71)
  20. the seven gifts of the soul ("les dons de l'esprit") (11S72)
  21. the (seven) acts of Mercy (11V)
  22. the (seven) spiritual Acts of Mercy (11V8)
  23. "menorah", golden seven-branched candlestick, kept in the Tabernacle (12A4231)
  24. cabalistic ritual of inviting to the "sukkah" the Seven Heavenly Guests (Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, Aaron, David) (12A63313)
  25. "Hoshana Rabba": seventh day of the "Sukkot" festival (12A6335)
  26. sabbatical year, "Shemittah" (every seventh year) :: Jewish religion (12A651)
  27. God rests on the seventh day (71A36)
  28. Jocob works as a herdsman for seven years in exchange of Rachel
  29. Jacob works for Laban seven more years (71C3147)
  30. first dream of the Pharaoh: seven fat cows are devoured by seven lean cows :: the story of Joseph (71D1511)
  31. second dream of the Pharaoh: seven thin ears of corn devouring seven full ones :: the story of Joseph (71D1512
  32. the seven years of plenty (71D1553)
  33. the seven years of famine (71D1554)
  34. Moses at the well meets the seven daughters of Jethro, the priest of Midian (71E1132)
  35. Balaam commands seven altars, seven bulls and seven rams to be prepared for a sacrifice in the presence of King Balak (71E331511)
  36. Balaam sacrificing the seven bulls and the seven rams in the presence of King Balak (71E331512)
  37. David hands seven descendants of Saul over to the Gibeonites (71H5323)
  38. the seven-branched candlestick :: temple of Solomon (71I43224)
  39. after marching for seven days the armies run out of water :: war against Moab (71K2913)
  40. seven bulls, seven rams, seven lambs and seven goats are offered; the people sing and the priests play trumpets, harps and cymbals :: story of Hezekiah (71L24141)
  41. seven miracles of assistance :: story of Elisha (Eliseus) (71N1)
  42. Naaman comes to the Jordan, dips himself seven times and is cured (71N162)
  43. after the furnace has been heated seven times more, the three Hebrews are bound and thrown into the fire; their executioners are burnt by the flames (71P133)
  44. the stone with seven eyes :: visions of Zechariah (71S2253)
  45. a candlestick of gold, with a bowl on top and seven lamps,and an olive-tree on either side :: visions of Zechariah (71S226)
  46. the evil spirit Asmodeus kills Sarah's seven husbands (71T41)
  47. death of Tobit: on his deathbed he speaks to Tobias and his seven sons (71T8)
  48. Job's children, seven sons and three daughters (71W111)
  49. Eliphaz, Bildad and Zophar silently sit on the ground with Job for seven days (71W543)
  50. "Wisdom has built her house, she has set up her seven pillars" :: the setting-up of the seven pillars of the house of Wisdom (71Y1(Prov. 9:1))
  51. sepulchral monument of the Maccabees: seven pyramids (71Z272)
  52. the martyrdom of the seven Maccabean brothers and their mother under Antiochus IV Epiphanes (71Z36)
  53. seven deacons chosen, among them Stephen, who may be shown kneeling before Peter :: community of disciples (73F16)
  54. seven exorcists, sons of Sceva, are beaten by a man with an evil spirit and flee (73F22344)
  55. Christ between seven golden candlesticks appears to John, who falls to the ground; a sword comes out of Christ's mouth and he holds seven stars in his hands (73G12)
  56. John's letters to the seven churches (73G13)
  57. the seven churches :: Revelation of John (73G14)
  58. the book with the seven seals enthroned :: Revelation of John (73G212)
  59. the vision of the Lamb and the book with the seven seals (73G22)
  60. the seven angels with trumpets :: Revelation of John (73G32)
  61. a pregnant woman, clothed with the sun and standing on the moon, appears; she is threatened by a red dragon with a long tail and seven heads (73G411)
  62. the leopard-like beast with seven heads comes out of the sea and is worshipped together with the dragon (73G421)
  63. the seven angels with the seven vials, bringing disasters and destruction upon the earth and mankind (73G48)
  64. the scarlet woman, the whore of Babylon; she is usually sitting on a scarlet beast with seven heads and ten horns (73G491)

Auteur: Peter van Huisstede